Thursday, April 15, 2021

Even More Vintage Movie Star Recipes, including Clara Bow, Fay Wray and Charlie Chaplin

As mentioned in my last couple of blogs, on Sunday April 18th I'll be a guest on Hollywood Kitchen, Karie Bible's entertaining video blog featuring recipes, a bit of cooking, and conversation about Hollywood's Golden Age. The show will stream live at 12 noon (PST - Pacific Standard Time). It will also be archived on its website. More about this program can be found on its website at  

And as promised in my last blog, I said I would post more vintage celebrity recipes. (Recipes associated with Brooks can be found in earlier posts.) So here goes. Let's begin with Clara Bow take on Welsh Rarebit (I think Winsor McCay would approve!), followed by Clara's baked macaroni. (The second clipping also has recipes associated with Ruth Chatterton, and Nancy Carroll.)

And here's one from the great Fay Wray, one of the few stars of the silent and early sound era who I once had the opportunity to meet! (It was at a party at the home of the daughter of an Oscar winning movie director. . . . ) The actress's Chocolate Marshmallow Fudge sounds tempting.

And here is a rarity, an advertisement for Crisco shortening which includes a recipe for Charlie Chaplin's Steak and Kidney Pie. Crisco was in June 1911 by Procter & Gamble, and this newspaper ad appeared just a few years later. I wonder if Charlie knew about this one?

And finally, here is one of the rarest recipes from my small collection of stuff (that is a technical term meaning "stuff") associated with dancer Ruth St. Denis. It is for Chicken Creole, which is described as an East Indian dish. Had Louise Brooks stayed with the Denishawn Dance Company, she would likely have traveled with them to Asia when they toured Japan, India and elsewhere. And who knows, she might well have eaten this dish at one time or another.

Monday, April 12, 2021

More Vintage Movie Star Recipes

Ahead of my April 18th appearance on Karie Bible's Hollywood Kitchen video blog, I thought I would post a few more vintage recipes by Louise Brooks' co-stars and colleagues, most of whom were associated with Paramount, Brooks' studio. More information about this program, as well as more vintage movie star recipes, can be found at  

Movie star recipes, movie star cookbooks, and general kitchen and household advice from Hollywood celebrities was a thing in the 1920s and 1930s. I have run across numerous examples in the old film magazines and newspapers I have looked through while searching for material on Louise Brooks. I have as well collected a few Hollywood cookbooks and pamphlets. Here is one example.


Stay tuned for another post in a few days, in which I will post yet more recipes including one from Ruth St. Denis, and a couple from Clara Bow including her take on Welsh Rarebit.

This first clipping in this post includes recipes by Jean Arthur (Canary Murder Case) and Mary Brian (Street of Forgotten Men). It is followed by another Mary Brian recipe, as well as a couple by two European stars, Pola Negri and Emil Jannings, who came to work in the United States (both at Paramount).

Thursday, April 8, 2021

Louise Brooks on Hollywood Kitchen, a second helping

As mentioned in my last blog, on April 18th I'll be a guest on Hollywood Kitchen, Karie Bible's entertaining video blog featuring recipes, cooking and conversation about Hollywood's Golden Age. More about this program can be found on its website at  

What's for lunch?

In my last blog, I also mentioned I would post another recipe ascribed to Louise Brooks, namely "Tomatoes Stuffed with Pineapple." Here it is, as clipped from a 1927 newspaper.

As I love tomatoes every which way, and sometimes enjoy fruit cocktail on cottage cheese as a lunch time treat, I figured I would give this dish a try. It is easy to make, and wasn't so different from what I already like. I went out and bought a fresh pineapple, something I seldom do, as well as a large tomato suitable for stuffing. The only thing I didn't have which the recipe calls for is Gelfand's mayonnaise, and so, I substituted Gelfand's for the mayo I had on-hand.

(Gelfand's is still around. If they are reading this blog and wish to send me a free jar, I would give this recipe a second go. I also found that individuals collect old jars with product labels, and I noticed this Gelfand's jar for sale on eBay.)

Back to "Tomatoes Stuffed with Pineapple." It took less then ten minutes to prepare. Besides the mayo substitute, the only other alteration to the menu I made was not peeling the tomato. That can be a bit tricky, and anyways, I don't mind tomato skins. Chef's choice, as they say.....

The dish turned out well. The mayo helps dampen the acidity of both the tomato and the pineapple, and the nut meats (aka nuts) added a pleasant crunch. Would I make it again? Maybe, though I prefer the simplicity of fruit and cottage cheese. One thing I remain a bit curious about is the clipping's reference to this dish coming from an old French cafe in New York. Might anyone be able to trace this dish to something comparable in French cuisine?

Sunday, April 4, 2021

Louise Brooks on Hollywood Kitchen

On April 18th, two weeks from today, I'll be a guest on Hollywood Kitchen, Karie Bible's swonderful and oh so delicious video blog podcast featuring recipes, cooking and conversation from Hollywood's Golden Age. More about this well worth checking out program can be found on its website at  I encourage everyone to take some time and explore some of the program episodes already streamed over Facebook and YouTube. "Try it, you'll like it."

A Polish newspaper clipping depicting Mary Brian and Louise Brooks in a Hollywood Kitchen.

Past episodes of the show have featured Mary Pickford's Hollandaise Sauce, Vincent Price's Rice-Stuffed Green Peppers, Cary Grant's Grandma's Apple Pie, Oliver Hardy's Baked Apples, Bela Lugosi's Stuffed Cabbage Rolls, Rudolph Valentino's Spaghetti Sauce, and many others. Not only does each episode focus on a film star and a particular recipe or two, it also includes a film historian, author, or expert on that star. And that's where I come in. I will be talking about Louise Brooks. Earlier, I shared a couple of related recipes with host Karie Bible, and she plans on making one of them, likely the Knickerbocker Chicken. Be sure and tune-in on April 18th to see how things turn out. And to hear us chat about the one and only Louise Brooks.

On my next blog, in a couple-three days, I will post another recipe ascribed to Louise Brooks which I made recently. Its "Tomatoes Stuffed with Pineapple."  Check back to see how it turned out.

Back in 2015, I went to the George Eastman Museum in Rochester, New York, where I spent a few days reading as much as I could of Louise Brooks journals. I came across all kinds of fascinating material including her 1973 recipe for "Brooks' cookies." Here it is. If you make it, please post something in the comments section about how your cookies turn out.

1 stick butter
1 cup brown sugar
2 eggs
1 table spoon milk
2 cups flour
2 tsp baking powder
1/4 tsp salt
dates and nuts. lemon rind
350 degrees 45 minutes cut to squares


Thursday, April 1, 2021

Lost films of Louise Brooks, a survey

Every April 1st, that is every April Fools Day, someone in the silent film community posts something about one of Lon Chaney's lost films being found, like London After Midnight (1927). Other legendary lost films also get mentioned, like original Great Gatsby (1926), directed by Herbert Brenon (Street of Forgotten Men) and starring Warner Baxter, Lois Wilson (The Show Off) and William Powell (The Canary Murder Case). 

This got me thinking about Louise Brooks' lost films. None have turned up since Rob Byrne found a fragment of Now We're in the Air (1927) in Prague back in 2017. And before that, little else has turned up, except for a couple of coming attraction trailers for The American Venus (1926), which I believe were uncovered in New Zealand. 

As of now, five of Louise Brooks' films are considered lost. Two others, the aforementioned Now We're in the Air as well as Just Another Blonde (1926), are partly extant (about 20 minutes survives of each), while her first film, The Street of Forgotten Men (1925), is mostly extant. Which of the five lost films or two partially extant films would you like to have found?  


Wednesday, March 31, 2021

Larry Edmunds bookshop in Hollywood reopens

It is a sure sign that things are getting better when what might well be the best film book shop in the world reopens. I'm talking about Larry Edmunds bookshop in Hollywood. The store's owner recently wrote on his Facebook page, "It is my pleasure to announce that after 53 weeks... the Larry Edmunds Bookshop will be open to the public from 11 am to 4 pm. Rules pertaining to occupancy & masks & such will be in full effect. Call & make an appointment w/ us and we’ll make sure you get in. Thank you to all of you who have continued to support the LAST bookstore on Hollywood Boulevard! We look forward to selling you a book (or books 😊) soon! Don’t call it a comeback, been here for years..." For more information, visit the store website HERE.

In fact, Larry Edmunds bookshop has been around since 1938, that is, during the last couple years of Louise Brooks' residency in Los Angeles. So who knows, perhaps she shopped there at one time or another. As mentioned, Larry Edmunds has been in business for nearly three quarters of a century. And as such, it is one of the last surviving cinema and theatre book and memorabilia stores in North America. It features an inventory of 500,000 movie photographs, 6,000 original movie posters and 20,009 motion picture and theater books. This is the place where film buffs come to shop.


During my pre-pandemic trip to Los Angeles in February 2020, I had the chance to visit the store. I've visited the historic bookshop (located at 6644 Hollywood Blvd) many times in the past, but always as a customer. This time, I visited as an author, and dropped off copies of three of my books, each of which are now for sale at the famous Hollywood bookshop. The three titles now available at Larry Edmunds are Louise Brooks: the Persistent Star, Beggars of Life: a Companion to the 1928 Film, and Now We're in the Air: a Companion to the Once Lost Film. In fact, back in May of 2020, Larry Edmunds bookshop was the subject of a TV news story, and in the background, copies of my most recent book, Louise Brooks: the Persistent Star, could be seen in the background (see above). If you live in or around Los Angeles, this is the place to go to check out these Louise Brooks Society publications (and a whole lot more).


Sunday, March 28, 2021

A checklist of some of my writing on early film, especially the silent era, with just a few tangentially related to Louise Brooks

Most silent film enthusiasts know of me, if they know me at all, for my work on and writings about the life and career of Louise Brooks. However, I have written a good deal about other stars and films from the silent era. And, have been doing so for well more than a decade. 

On this blog in the past, I have posted a checklist of some of my Louise Brooks related articles, most written for various on-line publications and websites. What follows now is a checklist of some of my articles and essays on other stars, films, and topics related to the silent film era. I have left out my long running "best books of the year" and "best DVDs of the year" pieces.  As well, I have hyperlinked to as many pieces as possible. Unfortunately, the old and Open/Salon pieces were scrubbed from the net when those websites were taken down. I hope a few readers, at least, will read a few of the following pieces. A few may even appeal to those interested in Brooks and her career.

Mank and Lulu, and contact tracing the origins of Rosebud. ” Louise Brooks Society blog, December 11, 2020.
— did Herman Mankiewicz learn of William Randolph Hearst’s special pet name for Marion Davies clit from Louise Brooks?

Buster Keaton’s Genius, Derailed: The Cameraman (Criterion Collection).” Film International, .
— review of a Buster Keaton DVD release

(Re) Considering Rudolph Valentino.” Film International, .
— review of three new DVD releases

Marion Davies: Gifted Actress and Impossible Boy.” Film International, .
— article on the early film actress

Mendocino Made Film to show at San Francisco Silent Film Festival.” Ukiah Daily Journal, April 30, 2019.
— article in local newspaper

The Real Stan and Ollie.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival, Winter, 2018.
— program essay

The Beginnings of Fritz Lang.” Louise Brooks Society blog, April 3, 2018.
— review of a DVD box set

Pola Negri: Her films were silent. She wasn’t.” Huffington Post, December 4, 2017.

Rescuing the Past: The Fall and Rise of Silent Film.” Huffington Post, November 30, 2017.

A World Turned Over: Wellman’s BEGGARS OF LIFE.” University of Wisconsin Cinematheque, November 28, 2017.

The Case for Marion Davies.” Huffington Post, November 22, 2017.

Before Hollywood, there was Fort Lee, New Jersey.” Huffington Post, September 22, 2017.

Two Film Historians and Their Lifelong Labor of Love.” Huffington Post, September 6, 2017.

Laurel & Hardy: The Magic Behind the Movies.” Huffington Post, November 21, 2016.
— sometimes I have notable readers (see below)

 “New Book Surveys Jules Verne on Film.” Huffington Post, October 27, 2016.

Girls Will Be Boys in San Francisco.” Huffington Post, May 25, 2016.

getTV Premieres Rare Cary Grant film.” Huffington Post, May 4, 2016.

I Like Una Merkel, Helen Twelvetrees, and Sally Phipps.” Huffington Post, March 10, 2016.

Best Films Books of 2015.” Huffington Post, November 23, 2015.
— this piece received a fair amount of attention (see below)

The Return of Baby Peggy — The Last Silent Film Star.” Huffington Post, October 21, 2015.

William Gillette and the Making of SHERLOCK HOLMES.” EatDrinkFilms, May 22, 2015.

Hobo Author Jim Tully Celebrated in New Documentary on PBS.” Huffington Post, February 11, 2015.

Disney’s Fantasia at San Francisco Symphony.” Huffington Post, May 29, 2014.
— this piece ran on Huffington Post San Francisco

Our Ramona at Our Silent Film Festival.” Huffington Post, May 27, 2014.

He Who Gets Slapped.” Ebertfest (16th Annual Roger Ebert Film Festival), April 2014.
— reprint of an earlier essay

Singin’ in the Rain at SF Symphony.” Huffington Post, December 1, 2013.
— this piece ran in Huffington Post San Francisco

Music to Murder By: San Francisco Symphony Screens Hitchcock.” Huffington Post, October 29, 2013.
— this piece ran on Huffington Post San Francisco

Lost Movie by First Film Superstar Found.” Huffington Post, October 3, 2013.

“Tears of a Clown.” Telluride Film Festival, 2013.
— essay in festival program; this piece was reprinted on August 29, 2013 in The Watch, a Telluride, Colorado alternative newspaper

Last Edition screens again at SF Silent Film Fest.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, July 19, 2013.

The Patsy.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival, 2013.
— program essay in festival booklet

Alma Rubens: A Marked Woman.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival, 2013.
— feature in festival booklet

Rare Alfred Hitchcock Films Debut in San Francisco.” Huffington Post, June 11, 2013.

Mary Pickford event at Rafael Film Center.” San Rafael Patch, January 30, 2013.

Q & A with Christel Schmidt, editor of Mary Pickford: Queen of the Movies.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, January 29, 2013.

Marguerite Clark: America’s Darling of Broadway and the Silent Screen.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, January 10, 2013.

Salomy Jane: Once Lost Silent Film Returns to Marin.” San Rafael Patch, September 25, 2012.

Once Lost Film Returns to Bay Area.” Huffington Post, September 19, 2012.
— cited in Jeremy Geltzer’s Film Censorship in America: A State-by-State History (McFarland, 2017)

Silent film star recalls 1924 Democratic Convention.” Open Salon, September 5, 2012.
— a Salon editor’s pick, and one of the most viewed pieces on Salon that day; the text of the piece has been archived here

A Hollywood Fairy Tale Gone Wrong.” Huffington Post, September 4, 2012.

Peter Pan shows in Vacaville.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, August 11, 2012.

Wings.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival, Summer 2012.
— program essay in festival booklet

Actor Paul McGann Talks about Silent Film.” San Francisco Chronicle, July 11, 2012.
— the eighth Doctor Who

Film historian Jeffrey Vance talks about Douglas Fairbanks.” San Francisco Chronicle, July 8, 2012.
— footnoted in a book found here, and reprinted on the website of the Douglas Fairbanks Museum

Could WINGS have been a 3-D film?” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, June 11, 2012.
— see also related posts on June 13th “Newspaper advertisements for WINGS,” June 14th “WINGS See it at popular prices“, and June 17th “WINGS with sensational sound effects

Laurel y Hardy en Español.” San Francisco Chronicle, May 10, 2012.

Robert Flaherty’s Man of Aran screens in Niles.” San Francisco Chronicle, April 27, 2012.

Buster Keaton gets a beat courtesy of the tUnE-yArDs.” San Francisco Chronicle, April 22, 2012.

In cinematic form, Napoleon conquers all.” San Francisco Chronicle, March 26, 2012.

Napoleon – “greatest film ever made” screens in Oakland.” San Francisco Chronicle, March 22, 2012.

Historic Bay Area Film to Screen in Niles.” Union City Patch, February 23, 2012.

Dizzy Heights: Silent Cinema and Life in the Air.” Berkeley Patch, February 20, 2012.

More than 10 reasons not to miss Napoleon.” San Francisco Chronicle, February 16, 2012.

Napoleon: A Lost Masterpiece Returns.” Huffington Post, February 13, 2012.

Dashiell Hammett at Film Noir Festival.” Huffington Post, January 25, 2012.
— this piece got a shout-out on author Don Herron’s website 

Historic San Francisco film emerges after 95 years.” San Francisco Chronicle, January 19, 2012.

Howard Hawks Retrospective in Berkeley.” Huffington Post, January 11, 2012.

Georges Méliès, Inspiration for Scorcese’s Hugo, At Niles.” San Leandro Patch, January 7, 2012.

Charlie Chaplin’s The Gold Rush is cinematic masterpiece.” San Francisco Chronicle, December 23, 2011.

Oscar-Winner Kevin Brownlow Continues His Labour on Behalf of Cinema.” Huffington Post, December 2, 2011.

Theaters of the San Francisco Peninsula.” San Francisco Chronicle, November 17, 2011.

Spencer Tracy biographer talks about his new book.” San Francisco Chronicle, November 14, 2011.

Susan Orlean talks Rin Tin Tin.” San Francisco Chronicle, October 26, 2011.

“Theda Bara – the first movie vamp.”, October 19, 2011.

Director John Huston – the story of a story-teller revealed in new book.” San Francisco Chronicle, September 28, 2011.

“Once banned film resurfaces 90 years after scandal.” Open Salon, August 25, 2011.
— a Salon editor’s pick

John Bengtson, archeologist of early cinema.” San Francisco Chronicle, August 17, 2011.

Walt Disney’s silent inspirations.” San Francisco Chronicle, August 9, 2011.

“The return of Baby Peggy, the last silent film star.” Open Salon, August 4, 2011.

He Who Gets Slapped.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival, Summer 2011.
— program essay in festival booklet

He Who Gets Slapped.” San Francisco Chronicle, July 4, 2011.

Reading the stars: books from old Hollywood.” San Francisco Chronicle, June 27, 2011.

“Marc Ribot accompanies Chaplin’s The Kid.”, March 14, 2011. 

“Sherlock Holmes vs Herlock Sholmes”, December 24, 2010.

Italian Straw Hat to screen in Sacramento with Orchestra.”, December 13, 2010.

Two New Releases Show Genius of Charlie Chaplin.” Huffington Post, November 24, 2010.

“Vernon Dent shines with new book, screenings in Niles in November.”, November 4, 2010.

Valley of the Giants.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, October 26, 2010.

“Early Warner Bros. Studios.”, October 12, 2010.
— book review

“Kevin Brownlow talks about archives and Louise Brooks.”, September 29, 2010.

The Remarkable Life of Valeska Gert.”Huffington Post, September 24, 2010.

Six questions with novelist Glen David Gold.” San Francisco Silewnt Film Festival blog, September 15, 2010.

“An encounter with a curious character.” Open Salon, September 14, 2010.
— about F. Gwynplaine MacIntyre; a Salon editor’s pick

Rare Oscar to a Film Historian… and the Award Goes to Kevin Brownlow.” Huffington Post, August 31, 2010.

The Secret Historian and the Silent Film Star: One Was Gay.”Huffington Post, August 31, 2010.
— commented on by New York Times critic Dave Kehr;  referenced on the Smithsonian magazine blog; and footnoted in Joseph A. Boone’s The Homoerotics of Orientalism (Columbia University Press, 2014); this article led the publisher, Farrar, Strauss & Giroux to revise later editions of the book

“First Ever Oscar to a Film Historian Goes to Kevin Brownlow.”, August 27, 2010.
— this piece was archived on

New Chaplin book by Kevin Brownlow.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, August 15, 2010.

G.W. Pabst: A Film Director for All Seasons.”Huffington Post, July 13, 2010.

“George O’Brien – a man’s man in Hollywood.”, July 10, 2010.  

“Daisy D’Ora, one-time German actress, dies at age 97.”, June 27, 2010.

Remembering H.A.V. Bulleid, Author and Pioneering Film Historian.” Huffington Post, June 14, 2010.

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea resurfaces in San Francisco.”, May 3, 2010.

“Georges Méliès – Cinemagician of early movies.”, April 23, 2010.
 — this DVD review was also archived on

Starstruck : Vintage Movie Posters from Classic Hollywood.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, April 20, 2010.
— book review

“Exploring the avant-garde, or Weldon Kees where are you?”, April 7, 2010.
— DVD reviews

A Century of Cinema (in Sacramento).” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, March 31, 2010.

Anna May Wong.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, March 22, 2010.

“Edison’s Frankenstein – It’s Alive.”, March 18, 2010.
— book review

Miss Mend is masterful melodramatic mash-up.”, March 16, 2010.
— DVD review

“Silent-era actress Dorothy Janis dies at age 100.”, March 12, 2010.

“Mack Sennett’s fun factory.”, March 9, 2010.
— book review

The personal touch, with smallpox.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, March 2, 2010.

“Robert Birchard’s universal history.”, February 23, 2010.
— profile / book review

“Silent Film Festival to screen restored Metropolis this summer.”, February 17, 2010.

“Silent film star Karl Dane revealed in new book.”, February 15, 2010.

Kevin Brownlow’s Photoplay Productions now online.”, February 10, 2010.
— Six months after I wrote “Someday, Brownlow should be given an honorary Oscar for all that he has done,” he became the first film historian given an Academy Award.

Image magazine, and the GEH.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, February 9, 2010.

“Early Westerns featured in new book.”, January 21, 2010.
— review of Western Film Series of the Sound Era by Michael R. Pitts

“Early Frank Capra films featured in Berkeley.”, January 14, 2010.

“New book on Edison’s Frankenstein.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, January 11, 2010.

“Screen hero Richard Dix celebrated in Niles.”, January 8, 2010.

J’Accuse – masterpiece not to be missed.”, December 10, 2009.

Considering Abel Gance.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, December 9, 2009.

When Chang came to town.” San Francisco Silent Film Festival blog, December 3, 2009.
— see also “When Chang came to town, part two

“Stuart Oderman: talking to the piano player.”, November 22, 2009.

“Francis X. Bushman – King of the Movies revealed in new book.”, November 6, 2009.
— review of King of the Movies: Francis X. Bushman by Lon and Debra Davis

“Celebrating Carla Laemmle and early Universal.”, October 28, 2009.

“Sad tale of Oakland comedian told in new book.”, October 8, 2009.
— my review of this biography of Lloyd Hamilton was archived on

“Anna May Wong documentary at film festival.”, September 16, 2009.
— this piece, like others, were syndicated aggregated hijacked by World News network

“Six silent film stars in need of a biography.”, September 6, 2009.
— this piece was archived on

“Silent films show in Berkeley.”, August 15, 2009.
— about The Salvation Hunters (1925)

Bardeleys the Magnificent is that.”, August 11, 2009.

Black Pirate screens in San Jose with Dennis James on organ.”, August 6, 2009.

“From silents to sound – book details tipping point in Hollywood history.”, June 16, 2009.
— review of Silents to Sound: A Biographical Encyclopedia of Performers Who Made the Transition to Talking Pictures, by Roy Liebman

“Reviving the art of silent film, one note at a time.”, May 25, 2009.
— interview with musician Dennis James

“The Silent Cinema in Song.”, May 19, 2009.
— book review of The Silent Cinema in Song, 1896 – 1929, by Ken Wlaschin

“Chaplin biographer to speak in San Francisco.”, May 8, 2009.

“Emil Petaja.” Classic Images, October 2000.
— obituary of the noted writer & film collector

 “A Window into Old Hollywood: Three Biographies.”, August, 2000.
book reviews

Tuesday, March 23, 2021

Prix de beauté (1930) Louise Brooks pays the price of beauty

Be sure and check out Pamela Hutchinson's outstanding new piece on the Silent London blog, "Prix de beauté (1930): Louise Brooks pays the price of beauty". It is an insightful look at a too little regarded film, a minor masterpiece if ever there was one and a historically important film deserving greater recognition. And if ever the silent and sound versions of Prix de beauté are released on a DVD in the English speaking world, these could be the linear notes. (Hint hint Kino Lorber, Criterion, Milestone, Masterpieces of Cinema, Flicker Alley, etc...)

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